Political Science: Writing & Citing

URL: https://libguides.cmich.edu/psc

APA Examples

In-Text Citation

  • In-text citations - author/authors
    • One to five authors: (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
    • Six or more authors: (Harris et al., 2001)
  • In-Text Citations - short quotations (under 40 words)
    • According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
  • In-Text Citations - long quotations
    • For longer than 40 words quotations, start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.
  • In-Text Citations - Summary or paraphrase
    • According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.



Citing Indirect Sources: If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. If you know the year of the original source, include it in the citation.

  • Johnson argued that...  (as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
  • (Johnson, 1985, as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).

Paper Format

MyBibA a free APA, Harvard, & MLA Citation Generator

Use databases to generate citations

How to use databases to generate reference citations?

All most all CMU databases can generate citations. However, a writer needs to use citation generators responsibly. Citation generators are, clearly, powerful tools to save time, but they can introduce systematic errors that the writer isn’t even aware of. Double-check the citation you receive against a reference. The following are a few video clips on how to use some databases to generate citations:

Writer Reference


Research Help

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